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Bacteria are the most important microorganisms to the food processor. Most are harmless, many are highly beneficial, some indicate the probable presence of filth, disease organisms, spoilage and a few cause disease. There are thousands of species of bacteria, but all are single-celled and fall into three basic shapes: spherical, straight rods, and spiral rods. To see them, you need a microscope that magnifies about fold.
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They have many different adaptations, depending on their habitat. Most are arboreal. Others, like macaques, baboons, and some mangabeys, are more terrestrial. All monkeys can use their hands and feet for holding on to branches, but some arboreal monkeys can use their tails, too. Tails that can grab and hold are called prehensile. These special tails are ridged on the underside and very flexible, so much so that they can grab a tree branch or pick up something as small as a peanut!
Monkeys are found in two main regions of the world, so scientists have grouped them as either Old World monkeys or New World monkeys. Old World monkeys are found in Africa and Asia. Some examples are guenons, mangabeys, macaques, baboons, and colobus monkeys. Some examples are woolly monkeys, spider monkeys, howler monkeys, capuchin monkeys, and squirrel monkeys. Marmosets and tamarins also live in New World habitats but are different enough to be in their own different scientific grouping.
Noses: Most Old World monkeys have small curved nostrils set close together. Most New World monkeys have round nostrils set far apart. Cheek pouches: Macaques and some of the other Old World monkeys have cheek pouches, where food is stuffed on the run, so it can be chewed later. Rump pads: Some Old World monkeys, such as drills, have sitting pads on their rumps, but New World monkeys do not.
Tails: Some New World monkeys, such as spider monkeys, have prehensile tails, but Old World monkeys do not. And one Old World monkey, the Barbary macaque, has no tail at all! Most monkeys live in the tropical rainforests of Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, or the savannas of Africa. Geladas and golden monkeys are mountain dwellers, and Japanese macaques live in parts of Japan where it snows; these are the monkeys you may have seen on TV that find hot springs and spend a lot of time in the winter sitting in the warm water—kind of like a macaque Jacuzzi!
Baboons live in savannas, open wooded areas, and rocky hillsides; although they are able to climb trees, they spend most of their time on the ground. Many monkeys are known for their tree-swinging leaps that put human acrobats to shame!
Colobus monkeys, unlike other monkeys, have hind legs that are much longer than their forelimbs, making for incredible leaping ability with great speed. Monkey feet are as flexible as their hands, which also help them travel through small branches high up in the rainforest canopy.
Monkeys play an important role in their native habitats by pollinating flowers and dispersing seeds as they travel. Some monkeys can swim; their webbed toes help them paddle through the water, and they may swim across a stream or river to avoid predators or get to food. Night or owl monkeys are strictly nocturnal, using their enormous eyes to see well in the dark.
They communicate with one another through scents and calls, including a series of grunts that resonate in the forest. Old World monkeys fill up their large cheek pouches with fruits, leaves, and insects as they forage during the day, stopping to chew and swallow their food when they find a safe spot to rest. Baboons are also known to eat meat when they can catch it, including young antelope, rabbits, and birds like guinea fowl.
Leaves are the food of choice for some kinds of monkeys. Colobus monkeys and langurs have chambered stomachs that carry bacteria that help ferment and digest leaves. Geladas prefer to graze on grass! Groups of monkeys, called troops, travel together by day to find food. A troop can number from a few individuals to a thousand or more. Within huge troops, monkeys form smaller groups, called harems, which include an adult male, several adult females, and their offspring.
Unattached adult males, called bachelors, sometimes form their own group. To keep family bonds, monkeys engage in daily mutual grooming. One exception to social living is the gray titi monkey, native to the tropical forests of Bolivia.
These small monkeys, which only weigh about 2 pounds 0. Some kinds of monkeys give birth to babies that are a completely different color from the parents. For example, adult colobus have black hair, but a newborn is white; langur babies are orange while their parents are black.
This color distinction probably makes it easier for the whole troop to identify and look after the infants. Infants are helpless at birth, so they get rides by clinging to their mothers. But marmosets and tamarins are different—the fathers have almost all the responsibility! They carry the babies on their back and watch over them, only giving them to Mom for nursing. Another difference—they regularly have twin or triplet, not single, births. Is that because Dad helps out so much?
When the troop is not traveling, monkey babies are very active, spending much of their waking hours playing. These fun activities help young monkeys develop physical and social skills they need for adult life. Monkeys are very social, so it is important that they communicate well in order to get along in their large groups.
They use vocalizations, facial expressions, and body movements to get their messages across. Staring, for instance, is a threat in monkey society. Monkeys look down or away to avoid threatening other monkeys, thus preventing fights. Monkeys with long tails sometimes use them to communicate with others and indicate their mood. Loud vocalizations can mean, "stay out—this is my territory. Monkeys use barks, screams, grunts, squeaks, hoots, wails, and moans to communicate with one another.
Grinning, or pulling the lip up to show the teeth, may seem like a smile to us. But for monkeys, this is a sign of aggression or anger, because biting is one of the ways monkeys fight and defend themselves. Other signs of aggression include head bobbing, yawning again, to show the teeth , and jerking the head and shoulders forward. Cotton-topped tamarins raise and lower a crest of fluffy white hair on their head to emphasize their facial expressions. Monkeys also express affection and make peace with others by grooming each other.
Although grooming helps monkeys keep their fur clean of dirt, dead skin, and parasites, it also helps them build and maintain good social relationships. Grooming seems to be a way to make up after fighting or to make friends with other troop members.
Unless human behavior changes, monkeys face an uncertain future. Many live in areas where people live. Monkeys are often considered pests by farmers and are killed. Some are killed for their fur and for meat, which is known as bushmeat; some are hunted for medicinal concoctions. Monkeys are also trapped and sold as pets, but monkeys do not make good pets. They are loud, messy, difficult to care for, and can be aggressive.
Monkeys can also become very sick from not getting the right food, and they lead unhappy and short lives from not living in the right conditions.
Many monkeys have been poorly studied, and researchers are only gradually uncovering their social, dietary, and behavioral habits. In Cameroon, hunting to supply the commercial trade in bushmeat destined for big Africa cities is one of the major threats to monkeys, and our conservation research stations are providing a safe haven simply because the presence of conservation researchers in the forest deters hunters, and our community outreach efforts in local villages help get the conservation information to the people who live close to wildlife.
You can help protect monkeys and monkey habitat, too! Do not buy anything made from monkey body parts. Be careful about buying items made from rainforest trees, unless that wood is certified. Some rainforest products, such as Brazil nuts, actually help protect monkey habitat, because they can only be harvested from healthy rainforests.
This type of product usually has a label describing how it helps protect the rainforest. Read the labels! Recycling and buying recycled products also helps save wildlife habitats by reducing the amount of resources we take from the Earth. By supporting San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance, you are our ally in saving and protecting wildlife worldwide.
Number of young at birth: 1 or rarely 2 for Old World and New World monkeys; 1 to 3 for marmosets and tamarins.
Largest: mandrill Mandrillus sphinx. Head and body length for males is about 28 to 32 inches 72 to 83 centimeters and 33 to 59 pounds 15 to 17 kilograms. Females are much smaller—about 18 to 19 inches 45 to 50 centimeters and 16 to 26 pounds 7 to 12 kilograms.
Smallest: pygmy marmoset Cebuella pygmaea , about 5 to 6 inches 12 to 16 centimeters , with a tail that's even longer—about 7 to 9 inches 17 to 23 centimeters. Most pygmy marmosets weigh just 3 to 5 ounces 85 to grams. Howler monkeys are the loudest monkeys—their deep, howling calls can be heard almost 2 miles 3 kilometers through the forest and more than 3 miles 5 kilometers over open areas like lakes. The males call to announce their territory to other troops.
Vervet monkeys have different alarm calls to identify different predators, such as eagles, pythons, and leopards. Patas monkeys can run on the ground at up to 31 miles 50 kilometers per hour, making them the fastest primate on land. Burping is a friendly social gesture among leaf-eating colobus monkeys. Their chambered stomachs digest leaves by bacterial fermentation, which produces lots of gas.
Golden monkeys, with their long golden hair and turquoise blue faces, were depicted in Chinese art for centuries, although westerners thought they were a fable until western scientist saw these monkeys for themselves, inMain menu. Search form Search.
Some Endangered. There are a few characteristics that are different in Old World and New World monkeys: Noses: Most Old World monkeys have small curved nostrils set close together. Females are much smaller—about 18 to 19 inches 45 to 50 centimeters and 16 to 26 pounds 7 to 12 kilograms Smallest: pygmy marmoset Cebuella pygmaea , about 5 to 6 inches 12 to 16 centimeters , with a tail that's even longer—about 7 to 9 inches 17 to 23 centimeters.
FUN FACTS Howler monkeys are the loudest monkeys—their deep, howling calls can be heard almost 2 miles 3 kilometers through the forest and more than 3 miles 5 kilometers over open areas like lakes.
By Phoebe Weston For Mailonline. Our modern day romance with alcohol started ten million years ago when apes developed a taste for fermented fruit, scientists say. This ability to 'booze' became ingrained in the human genome as it proved incredibly advantageous for our ancestors. This is because they could more easily take part in everyday bonding rituals, according to the 'drunken monkey hypothesis'.
Another startling fact is that the trees are thought to live for as long as a thousand years. The first thing that strikes an observer of a.
The night was dark and moonless and the heavy tropical air seemed to absorb the light of all but the brightest stars. I strained to hear something that would tell me the bats had arrived, but heard only the sound of my breathing, the faint rustle of leaves, and the quiet whine of a mosquito. A year earlier, while working at BCI, I had become aware of the plight of flying foxes. Some species of these unique bats are key pollinators and seed dispersers of Old World tropical forests. Unfortunately, they are also one of the most critically threatened groups of bats, often overharvested for food or slaughtered in large numbers when they occasionally harm orchards. In Africa, many are killed simply because of misperceptions. I returned to school at Northern Arizona University, determined to conduct research that could help these fascinating and imperiled animals. I read that the fruit of the Iroko tree Milicia excelsa makes upAlmost 17 percent of the timber revenue is from one tree, the Iroko.
Cycling continues to boom and next year is shaping up as an exciting one for two-wheeled adventurers of all ages. Wildlife on Kangaroo Island off South Australia is starting to bounce back exactly two years after it was ravaged by the worst bushfires in its history. Home Topics Wildlife Animals getting high: 10 common drunks. A Decrease font size.
Sloths are naturally solitary animals, but they are not all alone up there in the canopy. In fact, sloths have an entire ecosystem living in their fur made up of different species of algae, fungi, moths and insects.
Monkeys live all over the world and come in various shapes, sizes and colors. As one of our closest relatives, these mammals are very intelligent and have opposable thumbs, allowing them to use tools and play games. There are more than different types of monkeys. They are separated into two major categories: New World and Old World. One difference between the two categories is that Old World monkeys don't have prehensile tails; New World monkeys do.
Fungus News. Scientists have now found that, contrary to other insect-fungus relationships, the job of the yeast in this one does Not much was known about what makes fungus so hard to kill -- until now. A team of However, they're hard to find in the wild, so some companies make By releasing an 'effector' molecule, it avoids elimination at a critical stage in its reproduction The situation is becoming more challenging because these organisms are developing resistance to antimicrobial treatments, just as
Two-toed sloths were found in about 20% of the trees used by Bradypus. of Bradypus live principally on the leaves, flowers, shoots and fruit of the.
Are you familiar with marula fruit or the marula tree? Marula is a beautiful African tree species that produces aromatic fruits about the size of plums. So, I did some research and came up with the hard facts. Marula trees are widespread across southern Africa, dating back thousands of years.
Quinoa and maca, the famous Incan super-foods from the Andes mountain region, have already made their mark on North American and European diets, but as scientists expand their research, a new wave of exotic super-fruits are hitting the market.
During a trip to Johannesburg I sampled a glass on the rocks, and after one smooth sip I was hooked. The Amarula cream liquor hails from the sub-Saharan plains of South Africa, the only place where the marula tree grows wild. Only the female marula tree produces the exotic fruit. This fruit grows for just several weeks of the year and is harvested — by hand, by locals — in the summertime. Located outside of Phalaborwa in Limpopo Province is the Amarula facility, where each fruit is checked to ensure it is fully ripened prior to beginning the Amarula-making process. The fruit is then destoned, fermented, then double-distilled, first in column stills and then in copper pot stills and aged in oak barrels for 24 months. The result?
By Susan Milius. June 4, at am. Stories of drunken elephants go back more than a century.